Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
The pursuit of knowledge is at the heart of Frankenstein, as Victor attempts to surge beyond accepted human limits and access the secret of life. Likewise, Robert Walton attempts to surpass previous human explorations by endeavoring to reach the North Pole. This ruthless pursuit of knowledge, of the light (see “Light and Fire”), proves dangerous, as Victor’s act of creation eventually results in the destruction of everyone dear to him, and Walton finds himself perilously trapped between sheets of ice. Whereas Victor’s obsessive hatred of the monster drives him to his death, Walton ultimately pulls back from his treacherous mission, having learned from Victor’s example how destructive the thirst for knowledge can be.
The sublime natural world, embraced by Romanticism (late eighteenth century to mid-nineteenth century) as a source of unrestrained emotional experience for the individual, initially offers characters the possibility of spiritual renewal. Mired in depression and remorse after the deaths of William and Justine, for which he feels responsible, Victor heads to the mountains to lift his spirits. Likewise, after a hellish winter of cold and abandonment, the monster feels his heart lighten as spring arrives. The influence of nature on mood is evident throughout the novel, but for Victor, the natural world’s power to console him wanes when he realizes that the monster will haunt him no matter where he goes. By the end, as Victor chases the monster obsessively, nature, in the form of the Arctic desert, functions simply as the symbolic backdrop for his primal struggle against the monster.
Obviously, this theme pervades the entire novel, as the monster lies at the center of the action. Eight feet tall and hideously ugly, the monster is rejected by society. However, his monstrosity results not only from his grotesque appearance but also from the unnatural manner of his creation, which involves the secretive animation of a mix of stolen body parts and strange chemicals. He is a product not of collaborative scientific effort but of dark, supernatural workings.
The monster is only the most literal of a number of monstrous entities in the novel, including the knowledge that Victor used to create the monster (see “Dangerous Knowledge”). One can argue that Victor himself is a kind of monster, as his ambition, secrecy, and selfishness alienate him from human society. Ordinary on the outside, he may be the true “monster” inside, as he is eventually consumed by an obsessive hatred of his creation. Finally, many critics have described the novel itself as monstrous, a stitched-together combination of different voices, texts, and tenses (see Texts).
Victor conceives of science as a mystery to be probed; its secrets, once discovered, must be jealously guarded. He considers M. Krempe, the natural philosopher he meets at Ingolstadt, a model scientist: “an uncouth man, but deeply imbued in the secrets of his science.” Victor’s entire obsession with creating life is shrouded in secrecy, and his obsession with destroying the monster remains equally secret until Walton hears his tale.
Whereas Victor continues in his secrecy out of shame and guilt, the monster is forced into seclusion by his grotesque appearance. Walton serves as the final confessor for both, and their tragic relationship becomes immortalized in Walton’s letters. In confessing all just before he dies, Victor escapes the stifling secrecy that has ruined his life; likewise, the monster takes advantage of Walton’s presence to forge a human connection, hoping desperately that at last someone will understand, and empathize with, his miserable existence.
More main ideas from Frankenstein
Discuss the true nature and personality of the creature in Shelley’s Frankenstein.
I. Thesis Statement: Although the creature behaves viciously and murders several people, he is not inherently evil or malicious.
II. Creation of the creature
A. The creature as a product of Victor Frankenstein:
1. Construction of creature from body parts
2. Victor brings the creature to life
3. Rejection of the creature by Frankenstein
4. Confusion and pain of rejection
5. Experience of physical senses
6. Emotional response
B. The creature as a lost innocent:
1. Wanders in the woods, alone and confused
2. Discovery of food and fire
3. Seeking shelter from natural elements
III. The creature in society
A. Second rejection by humans:
1. The peasant flees from the creature
2. He is isolated from society
B. Creature understands he is repulsive to humans:
1. Prefers to hide in the forest, away from people
2. The creature realizes he is ugly
C. The benevolent nature of the creature:
1. Admiration of the De Lacey family
2. Anonymous acts of kindness towards the family
3. Appreciation of music and literature
4. Attempt to communicate with M. De Lacey
a. Seeks companionship from the father
b. Experiences sadness instead of anger at Felix’s attack
5. Burns down cottage after De Laceys move out
a. First violent act in response to rejection
D. The creature attempts to save the drowning girl:
1. Attacked by girl’s father
2. Further rejection by society
IV. Creature’s relationship with Frankenstein
A. Rejection and abandonment by “father”:
B. Creature discovers identity of his creator:
1. Creature experiences true rage
C. Creature demands a mate from Frankenstein:
1. Only wants to be left alone with a companion
2. Promises not to harm anyone