Writing a Conclusion
It’s important to write a good introduction. It’s important to keep things organized in the main body of your writing. And it’s important to write a good conclusion. In a nonfiction piece, the purpose of a conclusion is to tie things up, summarize what has been said, and reinforce the main idea. In a creative writing piece, it also helps tie things up and might also leave the reader thinking or wondering.
A good way to get started writing conclusions is to give yourself a starting point. You can begin with any of the following: to sum up, in conclusion, in summary. Make sure these sound appropriate and fit well with what you’ve written. As you grow as a writer, you might want to leave these behind and try other strategies.
Use what you’ve written to help you write your conclusion. You can often rephrase what you included in your introductory paragraph. If you began with, "The colors of autumn make it my favorite season," then you can include a similar sentence in your conclusion. For example, "It is the orange, red, and brown of the leaves that make me love the fall."
You can also end with a question. This may or may not be effective, depending on the content and style of your writing. For a story about a boy who gets a new puppy, you might end with, "Can you imagine all the wonderful things to come?" For a piece on the importance of brushing your teeth, you might make the reader think with something like, "You don’t want all of that on your teeth all night long, do you?"
However you choose to write your conclusion, be sure that it fits well with your piece. It should flow naturally and remind the reader of the wonderful things you’ve written.
Time4Writing provides practice in this area. View our coursework available in Middle School Advanced Essay or browse other related courses.
What is a conclusion?
- A conclusion is what you will leave with your reader
- It "wraps up" your essay
- It demonstrates to the reader that you accomplished what you set out to do
- It shows how you have proved your thesis
- It provides the reader with a sense of closure on the topic
- A conclusion is the opposite of the introduction
- Remember that the introduction begins general and ends specific
- The conclusion begins specific and moves to the general
- So, if we use shapes to demonstrate the essay’s content, it would look like this:
Body of Essay
Rephrased thesis statement
What to include
- Your conclusion wraps up your essay in a tidy package and brings it home for your reader
- Your topic sentence should summarize what you said in your thesis statement
- This suggests to your reader that you have accomplished what you set out to accomplish
- Do not simply restate your thesis statement, as that would be redundant
- Rephrase the thesis statement with fresh and deeper understanding
- Your conclusion is no place to bring up new ideas
- Your supporting sentences should summarize what you have already said in the body of your essay
- If a brilliant idea tries to sneak into the final paragraph, you must pluck it out and let it have its own paragraph in the body, or leave it out completely
- Your topic for each body paragraph should be summarized in the conclusion
- Your closing sentence should help the reader feel a sense of closure
- Your closing sentence is your last word on the subject; it is your "clincher"
- Demonstrate the importance of your ideas
- Propel your reader to a new view of the subject
- End on a positive note
- Your closing sentence should make your readers glad they read your paper
Strategies for an effective conclusion
- Play the "So What" Game.
- When you read a statement from the conclusion, ask yourself, "So what?" or "Why should anybody care?"
- Ponder that question and answer it
- Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass
- So what?
- Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen
- Why should anybody care?
- That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally.
- Return to the theme or themes in the introduction
- This brings the reader full circle
- If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding
- Refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words, or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction
- Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in the paper
- Pull it all together
- Show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together
- Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for the paper
- Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study
- Point to broader implications
- A paper about the style of writer, Virginia Woolf, could point to her influence on other writers or later feminists
Concluding strategies that do not work
- Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase
- These may work in speeches, but they come across as wooden and trite in writing
- "in conclusion"
- "in summary"
- "in closing"
- "as shown in the essay"
- Stating the thesis for the very first time
- Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion
- Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of the paper
- Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper
- "That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It"
- Restates the thesis and is usually painfully short
- Does not push ideas forward
- Written when the writer can’t think of anything else to say
- In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
- "Sherlock Holmes"
- State the thesis for the first time in the conclusion
- Writer thinks it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in suspense and then "wow" them with the main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery
- Readers want an analytical discussion of the topic in academic style, with the thesis statement up front
- "America the Beautiful"
- Draws on emotion to make its appeal
- Out of character with the rest of the paper
- "Grab Bag"
- Includes extra information thought of or found but couldn’t integrate into the main body
- Creates confusion for the reader
- Topic sentence
- Fresh rephrasing of thesis statement
- Supporting sentences
- Summarize or wrap up the main points in the body of the essay
- Explain how ideas fit together
- Closing sentence
- Final words
- Connects back to the introduction
- Provides a sense of closure
Your conclusions will summarize whether or not your science fair project results support or contradict your original hypothesis. If you are doing an Engineering or Computer Science programming project, then you should state whether or not you met your design criteria. You may want to include key facts from your background research to help explain your results. Do your results suggest a relationship between the independent and dependent variable?
If Your Results Show that Your Hypothesis is False
If the results of your science experiment did not support your hypothesis, don't change or manipulate your results to fit your original hypothesis, simply explain why things did not go as expected. Professional scientists commonly find that results do not support their hypothesis, and they use those unexpected results as the first step in constructing a new hypothesis. If you think you need additional experimentation, describe what you think should happen next.
Scientific research is an ongoing process, and by discovering that your hypothesis is not true, you have already made huge advances in your learning that will lead you to ask more questions that lead to new experiments. Science fair judges do not care about whether you prove or disprove your hypothesis; they care how much you learned.
|What Makes for Good Conclusions?||For Good Conclusions, You Should Answer "Yes" to Every Question|
|Do you summarize your results and use it to support the findings?||Yes / No|
|Do your conclusions state that you proved or disproved your hypothesis? (Engineering & programming projects should state whether they met their design criteria.)||Yes / No|
|If appropriate, do you state the relationship between the independent and dependent variable?||Yes / No|
|Do you summarize and evaluate your experimental procedure, making comments about its success and effectiveness?||Yes / No|
|Do you suggest changes in the experimental procedure and/or possibilities for further study?||Yes / No|